Feeding constitutes the fundamental and major management concern in poultry production since major expenditure (60-70%) in poultry raising is feed cost. Efficiency in feeding is one of the key factors for successful poultry production. Water, protein, energy, minerals and vitamins are the major nutrients available through various feed stuffs. Proteins are highly complex chemical substances containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and occasionally phosphorus or sulphur or both. They are essential constituents of animal and vegetable cells. The requirement of proteins is essentially requirement of amino acids. The essential amino acids for poultry are Arginine, Glycine, Histidine, Leucine, Isoleucin, Lysine, Methionine, Cystine, Phenylalamine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine. Out of these, Arginine, Lysine, Methionine, Cystine and Tryptophan are critical amino acids in practical diet.
Soyabean meal is the vegetable protein source and is the worldwide standard protein for comparing other protein sources. During the processing soyabeans are dehulled about 4% by weight and then cracked before conditioning at 70°C. The hot cracked beans are then flaked to about 0.25mm thickness so as to enhance oil extraction by a solvent which is usually hexane. Soyabean seed contain number of natural toxins. Soybean have a number of toxic, stimulatory and inhibitory substances.
i) Goitrogenic material
ii) Antigens, toxic to young pre-ruminants
iii) Haemagglutinin Agglutinate RBC in rat, rabbit and human being
iv) Trypsin inhibitor, affects in digestibility of proteins especially in monogastric animals
v) Soybeans also contain “genistein” a plant estrogen
Trypsin inhibitor disruptsthe protein digestion and its presence is characterized by compensatory hypertrophy of the pancreas. Heating destroys trypsin inhibitors and other less important toxins like hemaglutins. Currently, feeding whole soyabeans after appropriate heat processing to inactivate the trypsin inhibitor (110°C for 3 minutes).Feeding raw/improperly processed Soyabean results in poor growth, decrease egg production, decrease egg size. If trypsin inhibitors are still present, pancreas size is expected to increase by 50-100%. These under heated beans have a characteristics nutty tasty while over heated beans have darker colour and burnt taste. Overcooking causing destruction of lysine and other heat sensitive amino acids. Most soyabean oil meal is deoiled type. Protein contains all the indispensable amino acids, but the concentration of cysteine and methionine are suboptimal.
Soyabean meal contain following nutrients.
Soyabean crop(Glycine max):
Soyabean are gaining popularity in India not only as fodder but also as an oil bearing seed and Soyabean meal. Soyabean is the single largest oilseed produced in the World. It requires well drained loam to sandy loam soils for good growth and requires hot and temperate climate.
In India, Soyabean is purely a Kharif crop, for which sowing begins by end of June with the arrival of southwest monsoon. The crop is usually ready for harvest by the end of September and starts being sold in the market October onwards. The seed rate for smaller size seed variety is 30-40kg/hectare and for larger size variety 50-60kg/hectare. It is ready for harvesting after 70-80 days.
Manuring and Irrigation:
The Nitrogen (25-30kg/hectare), Phosphorus (30-35kg/hectare) and Potash (20-25kg/hectare) may be mixed with soil before sowing. The nitrogen requirement may be reduced to 10-12kg/hectare if 80-100 quintal/hectare FYM (Farm Yard Manure) is added to the soil.
Yield and Nutritive value:
The green fodder yield is about 300-350quital/hectare. It is productive ration and supports a cow for yielding 6 litres milk, when fed ad libitum. The yield and nutritive values are almost comparable to cow pea under favorable conditions.
As per farmer, it is very easy to take Soyabean crop because there is no need to do extra works. There is only one time investment at the time of sowing period. Indore, Ujjain, Dewas, Bhopal and Mandsor in Madhya Pradesh, and Nagpur, Sangli in Maharashtra are the major trading centers (spot markets) of Soyabean in India. Soyabean has been commercially utilized to produce edible oil and animal feed. After oilextraction, the by products of oil cake and meal are used in animal feed as an important source of protein.
Soyabean meal is the world’s most important vegetable protein feed source because of its high digestibility, high energy content and consistency. It accounts for nearly 65% of World Protein Feed Demand. About 98 percent of Soyabean meal is used as an animal feed ingredient.
Soyabean oil is a derivative of Soyabean. On crushing mature beans, oil and meal are obtained. While the oil is mainly used for human consumption, meal serves as the main source of protein in animal feeds. Refined Soyabean oil is increasingly gaining acceptance as the medium of cooking in India.
As per survey conducted by SOPA, the all India estimated production for Kharif 2014 is 104.366 Lac MT as compared to 94.768 Lac MT during Kharif 2013 which means an increase of 10.12 % over previous year.
State wise report is as under:
In Madhya Pradesh, the area under Soyabean cultivation during Kharif 2014 is 55.462 Lac Hectares as compared to 62.605 Lac Hectares during Kharif 2013 showing a decrease of 11.40%. However in 2013, the productivity was abnormally low, which was not the case this year, and in spite of lower area, the production during Kharif 2014 was 60.249 Lac MT as compared to 43.262 Lac MT during Kharif 2013 showing an increase of 39.26%.
In Maharashtra, the area under Soyabean cultivation during Kharif 2014 is 38.008 Lac Hectare as compared to 38.704 Lac Hectare during Kharif 2013. The yield was 808 kg per Hectare, resulting into a production of 30.721 Lac MT during Kharif 2014.
In Rajasthan, the area under Soyabean cultivation during Kharif 2014 is 6.820 Lac Hectare as compared to 10.588 Lac Hectare, during Kharif 2013. The yield of 827 kg per Hectare and production 5.639 Lac MT were estimated during Kharif 2014.
In Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Chattisgarh, Gujrat and other states, the area under Soyabean cultivation were 8.545 Lac Hectare and production 7.757 Lac MT estimated during Kharif 2014.
Soyabean meal is the main ingredient as a vegetable protein source in poultry feed. Yield and production of Soyabean crop influence the whole poultry industry by increasing or decreasing the cost of the feed. In India, Soyabean meal has a great demand and because of increasing the price of Soyabean meal, there is need to search alternate vegetable protein source for Soyabean meal which should be cheap, economic and highly nutritive.
*Dr. Suraj A. Amrutkarand
Assistant Professor, Dept. of ILFC, SKUAST-J, Jammu
**Dr. Suhas A. Amrutkar
Livestock Development Officer, Animal Husbandry department, Maharashtra